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Saturday, October 14, 2017

The Online Webinar On Arthritis.

BRIEF INTRODUCTION
Arthritis is a inflammation of the joint. It is not a single disease, rather an informal way of referring to joint pain or disease.


It occurs across different age groups, sex and race while older women are at increased risk.

Arthritis actually occurs as symptoms and not a disease on its own.
Its occurrence signifies presence of a basal cause, and which must be identified before instituting appropriate treatment, only then can such treatment be effective

SYMPTOMS

Symptoms may include swelling, pain, stiffness and decreased range of motion; making it fit to be classically defined as inflammation.
They may be mild, moderate or severe and may exacerbate after being the same for a long period of time, say 12 months. We remember that inflammation has 4, infact 5 classical signs: heat, redness, swelling, pain and loss of function, these are actually manifest in arthritis.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

There are more than 100 different types of arthritis affecting people of all ages, sexes and races, and it is the leading cause of disability in America. More than 50 million adults and 300,000 children have some type of arthritis (in America). It is most common among women and occurs more frequently as people get older.
There is limited data on its prevalence in Nigeria, but in my practice and experience, it accounts for up to 5% of hospital visits, as well as up to 25% of geriatric consultations.

Another interesting thing to note is that arthritis usually occurs as a chronic condition. It may be present for a long time before it exacerbates, and it may also resolve on its own

CLASSIFICATION

 *DEGENERATIVE*

Here we talk about osteoarthritis but before we go further, let me point out that not all arthritis are osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage degenerates, probably due to age, trauma, increased activity misuse of body parts etc. Bone rubs on the other and then there is inflammation. This is osteoarthritis

 *INFLAMMATORY*

A normal body like mine has a well functioning immune system, but some other person's immune system may misbehave attacking the body's own tissue, somewhat like an autoimmune disorder. A classical one is the rheumatoid arthritis in which antibodies to a particular antigen attacks tissue at the joint due to epitope similarities. In this, the result is that the joint gets inflamed and the manifestation occurs

*INFECTIOUS*
It could be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses- examples are Salmonella, Shigella, chlamydia, HCV to mention a few. Any of these pathogens may get trapped in the joint and may result in inflammation

*METABOLIC*

A common one here is the gouty arthritis in which uric acid, a metabolite of purine nucleotide may accumulate due to overproduction and then precipitate around the joints. Now that we have talked about what causes arthritis, how is it disgnosed?

DIAGNOSIS

Permit me to say that arthritis is diagnosed mainly clinically, however not exclusively. Diagnostic procedures include imaging (especially in degenerative), blood testing, and fluid testing
There is no specific test that pin-points arthritis, however, combination of a number of investigations will increase the likelihood of definitive diagnosis
These include: Full blood count, ESR, CRP, C3, ANA, ANCA, and rheumatoid factor. All these are not specific, and that is why multiple parameters should be considered. Also let me remark that a Rheumatoid factor about the cut-off level may not necessarily mean rheumatism/rheumatic arthritis. Other autoimmune disorders should be excluded (differential diagnosis)

TREATMENT

Treatment - Depending on the cause

i: DEGENERATIVE
Lifestyle modification such as balancing activity with rest, using hot and cold therapies, regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, strengthening the muscles around the joint for support.

ii: INFLAMMATORY
Use of antiinflammatory- aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, meloxicam. However, take note of contraindications of these drugs. The COX1/COX2 pathway of pain are mutually exclusive

iii: INFECTIOUS
Specifically handling the pathogen

iv: METABOLIC
allopurinol

The session was ended with resounding applauses from the participants

12/10/2017

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Young Medical Laboratory Scientists Forum


The just concluded online webinar was brilliantly delivered by a Young Medical Laboratory Scientist, Sct. Adelakun, Ayodele, a renowned and sound Chemical Pathologist with PhD in  view in Immunology

1 comment:

  1. I have been dealing with rheumatoid arthritis for my whole life, it started about in my early 30s back in the 90s. I would have my hand swell up to big red balloons around my knuckles and I wouldn't be able to move the hands at all. What I did notice that helped relieve the pain, but not the swelling was Absorbine Jr. The arthritis cream made it easier with the stiffness and the pain when I had the worst conditions. The swelling and the movement were still bad though and sometimes that made it hard to do the easiest of tasks around the house. The thing I noticed at first and the early signs were pain and the swelling. The swelling where my knuckles would get red where the first indications that I had rheumatoid arthritis I searched for alternative treatments and started on rheumatoid arthritis herbal formula i ordered from Health Herbal Clinic, my symptoms totally declined over a 5 weeks use of the rheumatoid arthritis disease natural herbal formula.i read reviews from other previous patients who used the herbal formula,i am now active, i can now go about daily exercise!! Visit there website www. healthherbalclinic. net or email Info@ healthherbalclinic. net herbs are truly gift from God.

    ReplyDelete

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