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Showing posts with the label Chemical Pathology

Dyslipidemia: A Focus on Hyper and Hypocholesterolemia

DYSLIPIDEMIA:This is  a condition  describing the amount of lipid  in the blood precisely  cholesterol and fat.(WHO 2000) this condition can be described in two ways which are the hyper and hypolipidemia respectively (WHO 2000). A disorder describing abnormal amount of cholesterol in the blood is termed dyslipidemia.(creckas 1997) Dyslipidemia is described in two ways:

The Liver: Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Anatomy of the liver  Functions of the liver Component of the liver Histology of the liver Diseases of the liver Maintainance of the liver INTRODUCTION The liver is the largest organ inside the body. It is  located behind the ribs in the upper right hand portion of the abdomen. There are over 300 billion specialized cells in the liver that are connected by a well organized system of bile ducts and blood vessels called the biliary system. The liver is responsible for the production of several vital protein components of blood plasma, such as prothrombin, fibrinogen, and albumins. The hepatocytes of the liver are responsible for important metabolic functions that support the cells of the body. Blood return from the digestive system passes through the hepatic portal vein. the liver is responsible for metabolizing carbohydrate, lipids, and proteins into biologically useful materials.  Digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into th

Cardiovascular Disorders: What You Should Know!

Contents Introduction Cardiovascular risk factors Hypertension Types of Hypertension Conclusion Introduction One of the largest killers in western urbanised societies is acute myocardial infarction. Its diagnosis is usually made on the clinical presentation and electrocardiographic findings, and confirmed by the characteristic changes in plasma enzyme activities.  Cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction is responsible for the major burden of mortality in urbanized societies and is commoner in males, the elderly and those with a positive family history of premature coronary heart disease (for example below 60 years of age).


A SEMINAR PRESENTED BY ENIOLA ADEWALE OLAYINKA: Table of contents:  General Introduction to Hb A1c  Test Significance of HbA1c  Clinical Significance of HbA1c  Conditions That Affect HbA1c Concentration.  Results Interpetation  Recommendation  Conclusion General Introduction Glycosylated-Haemogblobin is blood glucose bound to hemoglobin (Hb) and includes the forms of Hb A1a, Hb A1b, Hb A1c. Glycoheamoglobin  (Hb A1c) is one of the types of minor haemoglobins found in every individual. It consists of 4-6% of the total Hb. Others make up the remaining 2-4% of the total (Phosphorylated glucose (HbA1a) or fructose (Hb A1b).

Understanding Acid-Base Disorders

These are referred to as Acidosis and Alkalosis. Acidosis and alkalosis describe the abnormal conditions that result from an imbalance in the pH of the blood caused by an excess of acid or alkali (base). This imbalance is typically caused by some underlying condition or disease. Normal blood pH must be maintained within a narrow range of 7.35-7.45 to ensure the proper functioning of metabolic processes and the delivery of the right amount of oxygen to tissues. Acidosis refers to an excess of acid in the blood that causes the pH to fall below 7.35, and alkalosis refers to an excess of base in the blood that causes the pH to rise above 7.45. Many conditions and diseases can interfere with pH control in the body and cause a person's blood pH to fall outside of healthy limits.